Who are The Gods of Egypt? What are The Egyptian Gods names?
The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of the people’s everyday lives. It isn’t surprising also that there were over divinities in the Egyptian pantheon. Some of these divinities’ names are well-known Isis, Osiris, Horus, Amun, Ra, Hathor, Bastet, Thoth, Anubis, and Ptah while numerous others are less so. The further notorious gods came from state divinities while others were associated with a specific region or, in some cases, a ritual or part. The goddess Qebhet, for illustration, is a little given deity who offered cool water to the souls of the dead as they awaited judgment in the afterlife, and Seshat was the goddess of written words and specific measures overshadowed by Thoth, the better-known god of jotting and patron of scribes.
Ancient Egyptian culture grew out of an understanding of these divinities and the vital part they played in the immortal trip of every human being. Historian Margaret Bunson writes
The multitudinous gods of Egypt were the focal points of the nation’s cultic solemnities and particular religious practices. They also played a part in the great mortuary rituals and in the Egyptian belief in postmortem eternal bliss (98).
The gods evolved from an animistic belief system to one which was largely anthropomorphic and invested with magic. Heka was the god of magic and drug but was also the early force,pre-dating all the other gods, who enabled the act of creation and sustained both mortal and godly life. The central value of the Egyptian culture wasma’at- harmony and balance- represented by the goddess of the same name and her white poltroon feather, and it was Heka who empoweredMa’at just as he did all the other divinities. Heka was the incarnation of heka ( magic) which should be understood to be natural laws which moment would be considered supernatural but, to the Egyptians, were simply how the world and the macrocosm worked. The gods handed people with all good gifts but it was heka which allowed them to do so.
These gods all had names, individual personalities and characteristics, wore different kinds of apparel, held different objects as sacred, presided over their own disciplines of influence, and replied in largely individualistic ways to events. Each deity had their own area of moxie but were frequently associated with several spheres of mortal life.
Hathor, for illustration, was a goddess of music, dancing, and drunkenness but was also understood as an ancient Mama Goddess, also associated with the Milky Way as a godly reflection of the Nile River, and, in her earlier manifestation as Sekhmet, as a destroyer. The goddess Neith was firstly a war goddess who came the epitome of the Mother Goddess, a nurturing figure, to whom the gods would turn to settle their controversies. Numerous gods and goddesses, similar as Set or Serket, converted through time to take on other places and liabilities.
These metamorphoses were occasionally dramatic, as in the case of Set who went from a idol protection- god to a villain and the world’s first killer. Serket was nearly clearly an early Mama Goddess, and her after part as protection against poisonous brutes ( especially scorpions) and guardian of women and children reflects those characteristics. Bunson writes
The Egyptians had no problem with a multitude of gods and they infrequently remitted old divinities in favor of new bones. Characteristics and places of colorful gods were syncretized to attune differing religious beliefs, customs, or ideals. For political and religious reasons, for illustration, the Theban god Amun, who was considered the most important deity in the New Kingdom, was united with Ra, a sun god whose cult dated to the onsets of Egypt. Worship of the gods of Egypt evolved over time as large religions developed on a original and also on a public scale (99).
The ensuing list of the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt is deduced from multitudinous workshop on the subject which follow below in the bibliography. Every attempt has been made to produce a comprehensive table but minor indigenous divinities have been neglected if their part seems uncertain or they were converted into major gods. When a major god evolved from an earlier minor deity, it’s noted.
Included also are generalities, similar as The Field of Doormats or Lily Lake, which were regions in the afterlife associated with the gods. The delineations of the god’s characteristics and the places they played are synthesized for clarity but it should be noted that not every deity listed was understood in the same way throughout Egypt’s long history. Osiris, for illustration, was most probably a fertility god in the Predynastic Period of Egypt (c. 6000-3150 BCE) but was formerly understood as the First King by the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE) and was the most popular god in Egypt during the time of the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE) at the same time that Amun was considered King of the Gods. Although these developments are occasionally noted below, the gods are generally described in the places they were best known for at the peak of their fashionability.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W Y Z
A’ah– An early moon god who evolved into Iah ( also known as Yah) and, ultimately, Khonsu.
Aken-Custodian of the boat which ferried souls across Lily Lake to the Field of Doormats in the afterlife. He slept until he was demanded by Hraf-Hef, the surly Divine Ferryman. His name only appears in the Book of the Dead.
Aker-The deified horizon, guardian of the eastern and western midairs of the afterlife. He defended the sun barge of Ra as it entered and left the demiworld at dusk and dawn.
Am-Heh-A god in the demiworld,” sponger of millions”and”eater of eternity”who lived in a lake of fire.
Amenet (Amentet)-A goddess who ate the dead to the afterlife with food and drink. Known as”She of the West”, Amenet was the consort of the Divine Ferryman. She lived in a tree near the gates of the demiworld. Son of Hathor and Horus.
Ammit (Ammut)-” Sponger of Souls”, a goddess with the head of a crocodile, torso of a leopard, and hindquarters of a hippo. She sat beneath the scales of justice in the Hall of Truth in the afterlife and devoured the hearts of those souls which weren’t justified by Osiris.
Amun (Amun-Ra)-God of the sun and air. One of the most important and popular gods of ancient Egypt, patron of the megacity of Thebes, where he was worshipped as part of the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu. Supreme king of the gods in some ages, though firstly a minor fertility god. By the time of the New Kingdom he was considered the most important god in Egypt and his deification framed on deism. Other gods were indeed considered bare aspects of Amun at this time. His priesthood was the most important in Egypt and the position of God’s Woman of Amun, given to royal women, nearly on par with that of the caesar.
Amunhotep (Amenhotep), Son of Hapu-God of mending and wisdom. Along with Hardedef and Imhotep, one of the many mortal beings deified by the Egyptians. He was the royal mastermind of Amunhotep III (1386-1353 BCE). He was considered so wise that, after death, he came deified. He’d a major tabernacle in western Thebes and a mending center at Deir el-Bahri.
Amunet-The womanish counterpart of Amun, member of the Ogdoad.
Anat-Goddess of fertility, fornication, love, and war. She was firstly from Syria or Canaan. In some textbooks she’s appertained to as the Mama of the Gods while in others she’s a abecedarian and, in still others, sensuous and erogenous, described as the most beautiful goddess. In one interpretation of The Contendings of Horus and Set, she’s given as a consort to Set at the suggestion of the goddess Neith. Frequently equated with Aphrodite of Greece, Astarte of Phoenicia, Inanna of Mesopotamia, and Sauska of the Hittites.
Anta-An aspect of the Mother Goddess Mut worshipped at Tanis as the consort of Amun.
Andjety-Early god of fertility associated with the megacity of Busiris (Andjet). His name means”He who’s from Andjet” associated with the djed symbol. He ultimately was absorbed by Osiris and his name came associated with that deity.
Anhur (Han-her)- Also known as Onuris by the Greeks. God of war and patron of the Egyptian army. See Onuris.
Anqet (Anukit or Anuket)-Goddess of fertility and the cataract of the Nile River at Aswan.
Anti-A Hawk god of Upper Egypt occasionally associated with Anat.
Anubis-God of the dead associated with embalming. Son of Nephthys and Osiris, father of Qebhet. Anubis is depicted as a man with the head of a canine or jackal carrying a staff. He guided the souls of the dead to the Hall of Truth and was part of the ritual of the Importing of the Heart of the Soul in the afterlife. He was presumably the original God of the Dead before that part was given to Osiris, at which time he was made Osiris’ son.
Anuke-A war goddess firstly and one of the oldest divinities of Egypt, occasionally consort of Anhur, god of war. She came to be associated with Nephthys and, to a lower degree, Isis and is appertained to in some textbooks as their youngish family. Beforehand delineations show her in battle dress with arc and arrow but she was converted into a Mother Goddess and nurturing figure. The Greeks associated her with Hestia.
Apedemak-A war god depicted as a captain, firstly allowed to be from Nubia.
Apep (Apophis)-Apep, the elysian serpent assaulted the sun barge of Ra every night as it made its way through the demi world toward the dawn. Gods and the justified nothingness would help Ra forfend the serpent off. The ritual known as Overthrowing of Apophis was performed in tabernacles to help the gods and departed souls cover the barge and insure the incoming of day.
Apis-The Divine Bull is worshipped at Memphis as a manifestation of the god Ptah. One of the foremost gods of ancient Egypt was depicted on the Narmer Palette (c. 3150 BCE). The Apis Cult was one of the most important and long-lived in the history of Egyptian culture.
Arensnuphis– Companion to the goddess Isis and worshipped primarily at her sacred point at Philae. He was depicted as a captain or a man with a feathered headgear. Firstly from Nubia.
Asclepius (Aesculapius)-A god of mending of the Greeks also worshipped in Egypt at Saqqara and linked with the deified Imhotep. His symbol, conceivably deduced from the god Heka, was a staff with a serpent entwined about it, associated in the ultramodern day with mending and the medical profession, known as the Rod of Asclepius.
Ash (As)-God of the Libyan desert, a kindly deity who handed the oasis for trippers.
Astarte-Phoenician goddess of fertility and fornication, frequently nearly equated with Aphrodite of the Greeks, Inanna/ Ishtar of Mesopotamia, and Sauska of the Hittites; appertained to as Queen of Heaven. In Egyptian tradition, she’s given as a consort to Set, along with Anat, by the goddess Neith.
Aten-The sun fragment, firstly a sun deity who was elevated by caesar Akhenaten (1353-1336 BCE) to the position of sole god, creator of the macrocosm.
Atum (Ra)-The sun god, supreme lord of the gods, first god of the Ennead ( bench of nine gods), creator of the macrocosm and mortal beings. Atum (Ra) is the first godly being who stands on the early mound in the midst of chaos and draws on the magical forces of Heka to produce all the other gods, mortal beings, and life on earth
Auf (Efu-Ra)-An aspect of Atum (Ra).
Ba’al– Storm god firstly from Phoenicia. His name means”Lord” and he was a major deity in Canaan only worshipped in Egypt in the after a period of the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE).
Gebal-Phoenician goddess of the megacity of Byblos, a protection deity, incorporated into Egyptian deification through her association with papyrus, which came from Byblos.
Babi (Baba)-He was a masculine god depicted as a baboon and emblematizing manly fornication.
Banebdjedet-A fertility/ masculinity god who appears as a ram or a man with a ram’s head, associated with the megacity of Mendes, ultimately another name for Osiris.
Ba-Pef -God of terror, specifically spiritual terror. His name translates as”that soul”. He lived in the House of Woe in the afterlife and was known to torment the king of Egypt. He was noway worshipped with a tabernacle but a Cult of Ba-Pef was to help assuage the god and cover the king.
Bastet (Bast)-The beautiful goddess of pussycats, women’s secrets, parturition, fertility, and protection of the domicile and home from wrong or mischance. She was the son of Ra and nearly associated with Hathor. Bastet was one of the most popular divinities of ancient Egypt. Men and women deified her inversely and carried amulets of her cult. She was so widely adored that, in 525 BCE, the Persians used the Egyptian devotion to Bastet to their advantage in winning the Battle of Pelusium. They painted images of Bastet on their securities and drove creatures in front of their army knowing the Egyptians would rather surrender than offend their goddess. She’s depicted as a cat or a woman with a cat’s head, and her major cult center was at Bubastis.
Bat-An early cow goddess associated with fertility and success. She’s one of the oldest Egyptian goddesses dating from the early Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE). Bat is depicted as a cow or a woman with cow cognizance and cornucopias and is most presumably the image at the top of the Narmer Palette (c. 3150 BCE) as she was associated with the king’s success. She blessed people with success owing to her capability to see both history and the future. Ultimately, she was absorbed by Hathor who took on her characteristics.
Bennu-An avian deity more known as the Bennu Bird, the godly raspberry of creation and alleviation for the Greek Phoenix. The Bennu Bird was nearly associated with Atum, Ra, and Osiris. It was present at the dawn of creation as an aspect of Atum (Ra) which flew over the early waters and woke creation with its cry. Latterly, it determined what would and would not be included in creation. It was associated with Osiris through the imagery of revitalization as the raspberry was nearly connected to the sun which failed each night and rose again the coming morning.
Bes (Aha or Bisu)-God of parturition, fertility, fornication, humor, and war, popularly known as the Dwarf god. He’s one of the most popular gods in Egyptian history who defended women and children, fenced off wrong, and fought for godly order and justice. He’s frequently represented as further of a spirit (a’ demon’, though not at each in the ultramodern- day understanding of that word) than a deity but was worshipped as a god and featured on a number of everyday particulars in the homes of the Egyptians similar as cabinetwork, glasses, and cutter handles. His consort was Taweret, the hippopotamus goddess of parturition and fertility. Bes is depicted as a bearded dwarf with large cognizance, prominent genitals, bow-lawful, and shaking a rattle. He’s always shown in a front-facing position of protection watching over his charges.
Beset-The womanish aspect of Bes is invoked in conventional magic. As a defensive god, Bes also fenced off dark magic, ghosts, spirits, and demons. His womanlike aspect was called on to combat these forces.
Buchis-Aspect of the Ka ( life force/ astral tone) of the god Montu in the form of a live bull. Depicted as a bull handling.
Cavern Deities – a bunch of nameless gods who lived in caverns in the underworld and punished the wicked and helped the souls of the justified dead. they’re mentioned in Spell 168 of the Egyptian Book of the Dead and are represented as serpents or serpent-like. The spell is popularly referred to as ‘Spell of the Twelve Caves’ and makes mention of offerings which should be left for them. The people of Egypt would go away bowls of offerings by caves for them.
Celestial Ferryman (Hraf-haf) – “He Who Looks Behind Him”, the surly boatman who ferried the souls of the justified dead across Lily Lake to the shores of paradise within the Field of Reeds. Hraf-haf was rude and unsightly , and therefore the soul had to find some way to be courteous in response in order to reach paradise. Hraf-haf is depicted as a person in a boat with his head facing behind him.
Dedun – A protector god of resources, specifically of products coming from Nubia. Originally a Nubian deity.
Denwen – A serpent deity within the form of a dragon surrounded by flames. He held power over fire and was strong enough to destroy the gods. within the Pyramid Texts, he attempts to kill all the gods together with his breath of fire but is overpowered by the spirit of the dead king who saves creation.
Duamutef – one among the Four Sons of Horus, a protector god of the canopic vase containing the stomach. He presided over the east, had the shape of a jackal, and was watched over by the goddess Neith.
Ennead – The nine gods worshipped at Heliopolis who formed the tribunal within the Osiris Myth: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Set. These nine gods decide whether Set or Horus should rule out the story The Contendings of Horus and Set. They were referred to as The Great Ennead. There was also a touch Ennead venerated at Heliopolis of minor deities.
Fetket – The butler of the sun god Ra who served him his drinks, patron god of bartenders.
Field of Offerings – a neighborhood of the afterlife devoted to Osiris, located to the west. In some inscriptions it’s synonymous with the Field of Reeds. (Gods of Egypt)
Field of Reeds – The Egyptian paradise within the afterlife which the soul was admitted to after passing successfully through judgment and being justified by Osiris. it had been a direct reflection of one’s life on earth where one continued to enjoy everything as before but without sickness, disappointment, or the threat of death.
Forty-Two Judges – The Forty-two deities who presided with Osiris, Thoth, and Anubis over the judgment of the soul within the afterlife. Once the soul had made the Negative Confessions (Declaration of Innocence) the Forty-Two Judges advised Osiris on whether the confession should be accepted. that they had names like Far-Strider, Fire-Embracer, Demolisher, Disturber, Owner of Faces, and Serpent Who Brings and provides, among others.
Four Sons of Horus – Four deities, Duamutef, Hapy, Imset, and Qebehsenuef, who watched over the viscera or the dead within the four canopic jars placed in the tomb. Each had his own cardinal point to protect, his own viscus to protect, and was watched over by a selected goddess.
Geb – God of the world and growing things. Geb is that the son of Shu and Tefnut, husband of Nut, the sky.
Gengen Wer – The celestial goose whose name means “Great Honker”. He was present at the dawn of creation and guarded (or laid) the celestial egg containing the vital force . he’s a protector god who was worshipped very early in Egypt’s history. Followers of Gengen Wer identified themselves together with his protective attributes and wore talismans reminding them to respect life and honor the earth.
Ha – A protector god, Lord of the Western Deserts also referred to as Lord of the Libyans. He was god of the desert to the west of Egypt, son of the god Iaaw who was probably also a desert god. Ha provided protection from the Libyans and opened oases for travelers within the desert. Depicted as a robust young man with the sign of the desert over his head.
Hapi – A fertility god, god of the Nile silt and related to the inundation which caused the river to overflow its banks and deposit the rich earth which the farmers relied on for their crops. Hapi was a really ancient god whose name may have originally been derived from the river and who was a personification of the river at flood. he’s depicted as a man with large breasts and belly signifying fertility and success.
Hapy – Also referred to as Hapi, a protector god, one among the Four Sons of Horus who protected the canopic jar holding the lungs. He presided over the north, had the shape of a baboon, and was watched over by Nephthys.
Hardedef – The son of King Khufu (also referred to as Cheops, 2589-2566 BCE) who wrote a book referred to as Instruction in Wisdom. The work was so brilliant it had been considered the work of a god and he was deified after death.
Haroeris – The Greek name for the sky aspect of Horus the Elder (also referred to as Horus the Great who appeared in the earthly realm as a falcon.
Harpocrates – The Greek and Roman name for Horus the kid , son of Osiris and Isis. Depicted as a young winged boy together with his finger to his lips. He was venerated in Greece because the god of secrets, silence, and confidentiality.
Hathor – one among the best known, hottest , and most vital deities of ancient Egypt. She was the daughter of Ra and, in some stories, wife of Horus the Elder. a really ancient goddess, she was sent by Ra to destroy humanity for his or her sins. the opposite gods implored Ra to stop her destruction before no humans were left to benefit from the lesson. Ra then had a vat of beer dyed red, to resemble blood, and placed at Dendera which Hathor, in her blood lust, drank. She fell asleep and woke because the benevolent goddess who was a friend to all. She was the patron goddess of joy, inspiration, celebration, love, women, women’s health, childbirth, and drunkenness. one among her names is “The Lady of Drunkenness”. She was thought to measure in sycamore trees and so was also known as ‘The Lady of the Sycamore.” within the afterlife she helped guide the souls of the dead toward paradise and was one of the deities aboard the sun barge of Ra who defended it from Apep. She is further related to gratitude and a thankful heart. The Greeks associated her with Aphrodite. She is depicted as a cow or a lady with a cow’s head and evolved from the earlier goddess Bat. Her characteristics were later largely absorbed by Isis.
Hathor-Nebet-Hetepet – A Mother Goddess aspect of Hathor worshipped at Heliopolis. She represented the hand, the active part, of the supreme god Atum (Ra).
Hatmehit (Hatmehyt) – She was a fish goddess worshipped within the Delta region of Mendes. Her name means “Foremost of the Fish”. She arose from the totemic symbol of the nome (province) of the region around Mendes, which was a fish.
Haurun – A protector god related to the Great Sphinx of Giza. He was originally a Canaanite god related to destruction who planted a tree of death. When he was delivered to Egypt by Canaanite and Syrian workers and merchants, he was transformed into a god of healing. His association with the Sphinx of Giza comes from these foreign workers who believed the Sphinx represented Haurun and built a shrine to their god ahead of the statue. he’s known as “The Victorious Herdsman” for a popular spell recited in his name for protection before going hunting.
Hedetet – Goddess of scorpions and protectress against their venom, an early version of Serket.
Heh and Hauhet – God and goddess of infinity and eternity. Heh was depicted as a frog and Hauhet as a serpent. Their names mean “endlessness” and that they were among the original gods of the Ogdoad.
Heqet (Heket) – Goddess of fertility and childbirth, depicted as a frog or a lady with the head of a frog.
Heret-Kau – A protective goddess whose name means “She Who is Above the Spirits”. She was worshipped during the amount of the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE) as a life-giving spirit who also protected the souls of the dead within the afterlife. Her nurturing qualities were later absorbed by Isis.
Heka – one among the oldest and most important gods in ancient Egypt. He was the patron god of magic and medicine but was also the primordial source of power within the universe. He existed before the gods and was present within the act of creation although, in later myths, he’s seen as the son of Menhet and Khnum and part of the triad of Latopolis. he’s depicted as a man carrying a staff and knife, and physicians were referred to as Priests of Heka. Magic was an integral a part of medical practice in ancient Egypt, then Heka became an important deity for doctors. He was said to possess killed two serpents and entwined them on a staff as a symbol of his power; this image (borrowed from the Sumerians, actually) was passed on to the Greeks who associated it with their god Hermes and called it the caduceus. within the modern day, the caduceus is usually confused with the Rod of Asclepius in iconography related to the medical profession.
Heryshaf – A fertility god depicted as a person with the head of a ram. he’s an ancient god going back to the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE). He was later related to Atum (Ra) and Osiris who absorbed his qualities.
Heset – Goddess of food and drink related to beer and enjoyment. She was an early goddess of Egypt depicted as a cow with a tray of food on her horns and milk flowing freely from her udders. Beer was mentioned as “the milk of Heset”. She was later absorbed into Hathor. She was a part of the Triad of Heliopolis along with Mnevis and Anubis.
Hetepes-Sekhus – A personification of the attention or Ra who appears as a cobra goddess in the afterlife and destroys the enemies of Osiris. She is depicted within the company of crocodiles.
Horus – An early avian god who became one among the most important deities in ancient Egypt. related to the sun, sky, and power, Horus became linked with the king of Egypt as early because the First Dynasty (c. 3150-2890 BCE). Although the name ‘Horus’ might ask a number of avian deities it principally designates two: Horus the Elder, one among the first five gods born at the beginning of creation, and Horus the Younger who was the son of Osiris and Isis. Following the increase in popularity of the Osiris Myth, Horus the Younger became one among the most important gods in Egypt. within the story, after Osiris is murdered by his brother Set, Horus is raised by his mother within the Delta swamps. When he comes old he battles his uncle for the kingdom and wins, restoring order to the land. The kings of Egypt, with some exceptions, all linked themselves with Horus in life and with Osiris in death. The king was thought to be the living incarnation of Horus and, through him, the god gave all goodies to his people. he’s usually depicted as a man with the head of a hawk but is represented by many different images. His symbols are the attention of Horus and the hawk.
Hu – God of the vocable , personification of the primary word spoken by Atum (Ra) at the dawn of creation which brought all into being. Linked with Sia and Heka. Sia represented the guts , Hu the tongue, and Heka their underlying force which gave them their power. Hu is usually seen as a representation of the power of Heka or Atum and is depicted in funerary texts guiding the soul to the afterlife.
Iah (Yah) – A god of the moon who figures prominently within the Egyptian calendar. within the story of the creation of the world, Atum is angered by the intimate relationship between Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) then separates them, declaring that Nut might not give birth to her children on any day of the year. The god Thoth appeared and gambled with Iah for five days worth of moonlight. He won and divided the moonlight hours into days which, because they weren’t part of the days of the year decreed by Atum, Nut could give birth in. She then gave birth to the primary five gods: Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder in July. The Egyptians regulated their calendar with these five magical days. Iah was eventually absorbed into the god Khonsu.
Iabet – Goddess of fertility and rebirth, referred to as “She of the East” and sometimes associated with Amenet (“She of the West”). Iabet presided over the eastern deserts and, in time, came to personify them. She was also referred to as “Cleanser of Ra” who bathed the sun before it appeared in the dawn sky and personified the freshness of the morning sun. She was eventually absorbed into Isis.
Ihy – God of music and joy, specifically the music of the sistrum. Son of Hathor and Horus the Elder. He was worshipped with Hathor at Dendera and invoked at festivals. His birth is honored in wall inscriptions at birth houses in Dendera within the belief that joy and music should welcome children to earth at their birth. Depicted as a toddler with a sistrum.
Imhotep – The vizier of king Djoser (c. 2670 BCE) who designed and built the Step Pyramid. He lived c. 2667-2600 BCE and was a polymath expert in many fields of study. His name means “He Who Comes in Peace” and, after his death, he was deified as a god of wisdom and medicine. He was identified by the Greeks with Aesculapius and was invoked in spells for healing. His medical treatises claimed, against convential belief, that disease was natural in origin and not a punishment from the gods.
Imsety – A protector god, one among the Four Sons of Horus who protected the canopic jar holding the liver. He presided over the south, had the shape of a human male, and was watched over by Isis.
Ipy – A Mother Goddess associated in some texts with the mother of Osiris, also referred to as Opet and “The Great Opet”. She is depicted as a hippopotamus or a mixture of hippo, crocodile, human female, and lion, most frequently with a lion’s head, hippo’s body, human arms, lion feet. She was referred to as “Mistress of Magical Protection” and is first referenced in the Pyramid Texts as protecting and nourishing the king.
Ishtar – The Mesopotamian goddess of affection , sexuality, and war. She was originally Inanna of the Sumerians and Akkadians, who became Ishtar to the Assyrians and influenced the event of other similar goddesses such as Aphrodite of the Greeks, Astarte of the Phoenicians, Hathor of the Egyptians, and Sauska of the Hittites, among others. She was probably first introduced to Egypt through trade the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE) but definitely gained prominent standing after the Assyrian conquest of Egypt by Ashurbanipal in 666 BCE.
Isis – the foremost powerful and popular goddess in Egyptian history. She was related to virtually every aspect of human life and, in time, became elevated to the position of supreme deity, “Mother of the Gods”, who cared for her fellow deities as she did for citizenry . She is that the second-born of the First Five Gods (Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder), sister-wife of Osiris, mother of Horus the Younger, and symbolically understood because the mother of every king. Her Egyptian name, Eset, means “Goddess of the Throne” due to her association with the monarch. She was also referred to as Weret-Kekau, “The Great Magic”, due to her incredible powers. She cared for people in life and seemed to them after death to help guide them safely to paradise. After the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the good in 331 BCE, her worship traveled to Greece then to Rome. During the time of the Roman Empire , she was worshipped in every corner of their realm from Britain through Europe to Anatolia. The Cult of Isis was the strongest opponent of the new religion of Christianity between the 4th-6th centuries CE, and iconography, also as tenets of belief, of the Isis cult were incorporated into the new faith. Imagery of Mary Mary holding her son Jesus comes directly from Isis cradling her son Horus and the Dying and Reviving God figure of Jesus himself is a version of Osiris.
Isis-Eutheria – A later Greek version of Isis worshipped in Egypt whose tears, when she mourned for Osiris, were thought to cause the inundation of the Nile .
Iusaaset – a really early Mother Goddess referred to as “Grandmother of the Gods” and linked to Atum at the creation of the world. She is depicted within the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE) as a lady with the uraeus and solar disc on her head holding a scepter and the ankh, symbol of life, and was related to the acacia tree, the Tree of Life, considered the oldest tree in Egypt. She was referred to as “Lady of the Acacia”, an epithet later attributed to Hathor. She was known to the Greeks as Saosis.
Iw – A creation goddess worshipped at Heliopolis related to Hathor and Atum, combining the qualities of Hathor, Nebet, and Hetepet.
Judgement Deities – See Forty-Two Judges
Jupiter-Amun – The Roman version of Zeus-Amun, king of the gods, worshipped at the Siwa Oasis in Egypt.
Kabechet (Kebehwet or Qebhet) – She was originally a celestial serpent deity who became referred to as the daughter of Anubis and a funerary deity. She provided pure, cool water to the souls of the deceased as they awaited judgment within the Hall of Truth. She was related to Nephthys as a friend of the dead.
Kagemni – A vizier to the king Sneferu (c. 2613-2589 BCE) who wrote the wisdom text referred to as Instructions of Kagemni. The book was considered so important it had been required instruction for children of the monarchy. He was deified after death and worshipped as a god of wisdom.
Kek and Kauket – Gods of obscurity and night, members of the first Ogdoad of Hermopolis. Kek and Kauket were the male/female aspects of darkness but not in any way related to evil. Kek was the god of the hours before dawn and was referred to as “Bringer-in-of-the-Light” as he guided the sun barge of the god Ra toward the sky from the underworld. Kauket, his feminine balance, was depicted as a lady with the head of a serpent also called “Bringer-in-of-the-Darkness” who presided over the hours of twilight when the sun was setting and guided the sun barge into the underworld.
Khentekhtai (Khente-Khtai) – He was a crocodile god worshipped within the Fourth Dynasty (c. 2613-2498 BCE) at the town of Athribis. His name and protective qualities were later absorbed by Horus.
Khentiamenti (Khentiamentiu) – A fertility god of Abydos who became a funerary god. His name means “First of the Westerners” (also given as “Foremost of the Westerners”) in regard to his role as a god of the dead (associated with the west). His name and attributes were later absorbed by Osiris.
Khenmu (Khnum) – Also referred to as “The Great Potter”, Khenmu was an early god of Upper Egypt most probably from Nubia originally. In early myths, he was the god who fashioned citizenry from the clay of the Nile River and then held them high so the light of Ra could shine upon them and give them life. Humans were then placed during a womb from which they were born on earth. Khenmu is depicted as a ram-headed god symbolizing virility and fertility. He formed a triad with the gods Anuket and Satis at Elephantine on the Egyptian border of Nubia. Linked to the god Kherty, another ram-headed god, though a totally different entity. he’s the patron god of potters and those who work in ceramics.
Khepri – a facet of Ra the sun god in his morning form, represented by the scarab beetle.
Kherty (Cherti) – He was a ram-headed god of the underworld who ferried the dead on their last journey into the afterlife. within the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE) he was said to rule the afterlife with Osiris. Kherty reigned over the doorway and hallways leading to the Hall of Truth while Osiris had reign over the Hall and the Field of Reeds. The dead were greeted by other deities once they arrived in the afterlife and were then brought to the Hall of Truth for judgment by Kherty. during this role he was benevolent but some inscriptions suggest he was an enemy of order who threatened the deceased king on his entrance to the underworld. Conversely, he’s also depicted as protecting the king.
Khonsu (Kons, Chonsu, Khensu, or Chons) – His name means “The Traveler” and he was god of the moon. He formed one among the most important and influential triads at Thebes along with his father Amun and mother Mut. he’s depicted as a mummy holding the crook and flail with a uraeus and moon disc on his head. Khonsu replaced the sooner god Montu as son of Mut and also took on his protective qualities. By the time of the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE) he was extremely popular and worshipped because the greatest among the gods after Amun. He was related to healing and images of Khonsu were believed to have miraculous abilities to heal the sick instantly.
Lady of the Acacia – one among the names of the goddess Iusaaset, “Grandmother of the Gods”, later given to Hathor.
Lady of the Sycamore – one among the names of Hathor who was believed to live in the sycamore tree which was sacred to her cult.
Lake of Flowers (Lily Lake) – The body of water within the afterlife which the souls of the justified dead crossed to reach paradise in the Field of Reeds. within the Book of the Dead, the justified souls are said to be ready to swim and enjoy themselves by the shores of this lake.
Lates-Fish – The Nile perch sacred to the goddess Neith, worshipped as a divine entity as Esna.
Maahes (Mahes, Mihos, or Mysis) – He was a strong solar god and protector of the innocent depicted as a lion-headed man carrying a long knife or a lion. His name is linked to the goddess of harmony and truth, Ma’at, and should mean “True Before Ma’at”. This interpretation is probably going as his other names include “Lord of Slaughter” and “The Scarlet Lord” referring to his punishment of those who violated the sacred order life presided over by the goddess. He was commonly understood to be the son of Bastet but is additionally referred to as son of Sekhmet, only natural since both were related to cats/lions. He possibly a facet of the god Nefertum, also a son of Bastet, and formed a triad with Nefertum and Imhotep at Memphis. Linked by the Greeks with the Furies due to his vengeful nature.
Ma’at – Goddess of truth, justice, and harmony, one among the most important deities in the Egyptian pantheon. She set the celebs in the sky and regulated the seasons. Ma’at embodied the principle of ma’at (harmony) which was central to the culture of ancient Egypt. Ma’at walked with one through life, was present within the form of the Feather of Truth at the soul’s judgment after death, and continued as a presence within the paradise of the Field of Reeds. She is depicted as a lady wearing a crown with an ostrich feather. The word means “that which is straight” and therefore the concept of harmony infused every aspect of an Egyptian’s life. there’s a time for every action and aspect of existence within ma’at but all must be recognized and acted upon at appropriate times.
Mafdet (Mefdet) – She was an early goddess of justice who pronounced judgment and administered execution swiftly. Her name means “She Who Runs” for the speed with which she dispensed justice. She is that the earliest feline deity in Egypt, pre-dating both Bastet and Sekhmet. She protected people from venomous bites, especially from scorpions, and predates Serket who later took thereon role. All of Mafdet’s qualities were later assumed by other female deities but Mafdet remained a well-liked goddess from the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE) through the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE) when she appears as a judge within the afterlife. She is depicted as a lady with the head of a cat, cheetah, leopard, or lynx holding the rope and executioner’s blade.
Mandulis (Marul or Merwel) – A Nubian solar deity worshipped by Egyptians at Philae and Kalabsha, both in far Upper Egypt near the Nubian border. the primary temple to him was constructed at Kalabsha during the 18th Dynasty (c. 1550-1292 BCE). He was identified with both Ra and Horus and is depicted as a falcon wearing a horned headdress (the hemhem crown) or a person’s wearing the same crown with serpents. In his association with Ra he appeared as a toddler , symbolizing the morning sun, and as an adult representing later day.
Mau – The divine cat who, in some stories, is present at the dawn of creation as a facet of Ra. Mau protected the Tree of Life, which held the secrets of life eternal and divine knowledge, from the evil serprent Apep. The story of Mau and therefore the tree is told in Spell 17 of the Egyptian Book of the Dead where it is clear the cat is Ra personified. Spell 17 also claims that this is often the origin of cats on earth.
Mehen – The serpent god who wrapped himself around Ra within the sun barge to protect him from Apep’s attacks. In early myths he’s shown protecting Ra while Set fights off the serpent.
Mehet-Weret – An ancient sky goddess and one among the oldest deities of Egypt. She is that the celestial cow goddess who rose from the primordial waters of chaos to give birth to the sun god Ra at the beginning of time. Her name means “Great Flood” and she or he is associated with fertility and abundance. After parturition to the sun, she placed it between her horns and each morning lifted it into the sky. Her qualities were later absorbed by Hathor.
Mehit (Meyht) – She was a moon goddess from the first Dynastic Period (c. 31250-2613 BCE) identified with the concept of the Distant Goddess who departs from Ra and returns to bring transformation. Usually depicted as a reclining lioness with three sticks protruding from behind her. Consort of Anhur.
Mekhit – Goddess of war, probably originally from Nubia, depicted as a roaring lioness and related to the moon. She symbolized the vengeful aspect of the attention of Ra. In one myth, the attention of Ra departs for Nubia where it transforms itself into a lioness. The god Onuris hunts it down and returns it to Ra where it becomes (or gives birth to) Menhit who then becomes consort to Onuris. She was worshipped at Abydos within the cult center honoring her and Onuris. The story of Menhit, Onuris, and therefore the Eye of Ra is an example of the Distant Goddess motif where the eye leaves Ra and returns or is returned, bringing transformation.
Menhit (Menhyt) – She was a solar deity who represented the brow of the sun god Ra, depicted as a reclining lioness. She was worshipped within the Delta region and associated with Neith and Wadjet as a protective goddess.
Meretseger – A protector goddess within the form of a cobra venerated at Thebes. Specifically, she guarded the necropolis of the Valley of the Kings.
Merit – The goddess of music who helped to determine cosmic order through musical means. She was a minor goddess who was eventually totally eclipsed by Hathor in reference to music. Hathor became related to the sistrum specifically and music generally but, earlier, Merit was the goddess who “conducted” the symphony of order which accompanied creation.
Meskhenet – Goddess of childbirth and one among the oldest deities of Egypt. Meskhenet was present at one’s birth, created one’s ka (aspect of the soul) and breathed it into one’s body. In doing so, she provided the person’s destiny through their character. She was also present at the judgment of the soul within the afterlife as a comforter and so was with an individual at birth, through life, and after death. She is depicted as a birthing brick (the stone women would squat on to offer birth) with the head of a woman or a seated woman with a birthing brick on her head. Her role of providing one’s destiny was eventually appropriated by the Seven Hathors but she continued to be venerated in homes throughout Egypt’s history.
Mestjet – A lion-headed goddess worshipped at Abydos together of the many aspects of the Eye of Ra. She undoubtedly was featured in stories of the Distant Goddess, as deities related to the Eye of Ra usually are, but no stories are found thus far. She is merely known from a single stela at Abydos which shows her standing with the ankh in one hand and a staff in the other as a woman and her daughter approach to pay her homage.
Min – An ancient fertility god from the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE). Min was god of the eastern deserts who watched over travelers but was also related to the black fertile mud of the Egyptian Delta. he’s shown as the husband of Isis and father of Horus in early inscriptions and so is associated with Osiris. Min is depicted as a person holding his erect penis in one hand with the flail of authority in the other.
Mnevis (Mer-Wer or Nem-Wer) – Mnevis was the sacred bull of Heliopolis considered a facet of the sun god Ra. He was a live bull selected from a herd for his completely black coat. just one Mnevis bull could exist at any one time and another was chosen only after the first died. He was eventually absorbed into Apis.
Montu – A falcon god who rose to prominence within the 11th Dynasty at Thebes (c. 2060-1991 BCE). His name was taken by all three rulers of the dynasty within the form of Mentuhotep (Montuhotep) meaning “Montu is Pleased”. He eventually became related to Ra as the composite sun god Mont-Ra and was associated with Horus as a war god. The Greeks equated him with Apollo
Mut – An early mother goddess who presumably had a minor role during the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) but who later became prominent because the wife of Amun and mother of Khonsu, a part of the Theban Triad. Mut was a protector deity related to Bastet and Sekhmet. She guarded over people in life and, in Spell 164 of the Book of the Dead, is depicted as a savior of souls trapped by demons within the afterlife. She was also the divine protector of the king and state who roasted conspirators and traitors in her flaming brazier.
Nebethetpet – A goddess worshipped at Heliopolis because the personification of the hand of Atum, the active, feminine principle of the god.
Nefertum (Nefertem) – God of perfume and sweet aromas. Nefertum was born from the bud of the blue lotus flower at the dawn of creation and was originally a facet of Atum. His name means “Beautiful Atum”. He was later considered his own deity and have become associated with sweet-smelling flowers. he’s associated with rebirth and transformation through his link to the sun god and flowers. In Egyptian medicine he was called upon for healing aromas to cure disease and related to incense.
Nehebkau (Nehebu-Kau) – “He Who Unites the Ka”, was a protector god who joined the ka (aspect of the soul) to the body at birth and united the ka with the ba (winged aspect of the soul) after death. he’s depicted as a serpent and, like Heka, has always existed. Nehebkau swam within the primordial waters at the dawn of creation before Atum rose from the chaos to impose order.
Nehmetawy – A protector goddess whose name means “She Who Embraces Those in Need”. She was worshipped at Hermopolis where she was considered the wife of Nehebkau. In other regions, she was the consort of the god of wisdom and writing, Thoth.
Neith – one among the oldest and most enduring deities of ancient Egypt, worshipped from the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) through the Ptolemy (323-30 BCE), the last to rule Egypt before it had been taken by Rome. Neith was a war goddess, creator goddess, mother goddess, and funerary goddess in her time and patron of the town of Sais in the Nile Delta. She was the foremost important goddess of Lower Egypt in early history and continued to hold a prominent position in worship for millenia. In early depictions she is seen with a bow and arrows and one among her epithets was “Mistress of the Bow”. As a creator goddess she was identified with the waters of chaos (Nun) before creation and, during this role, she is named “Grandmother of the Gods” or “Mother of the Gods”. She was thought to possess invented birth and was closely associated with living and growing things. As a mother goddess, she is that the mediator of the gods’ disputes, most famously because the goddess who settles the question of whether Horus or Set should rule Egypt when the tribunal of the gods cannot decide. She also became prominent as a funerary goddess who watched over the dead. Her statue appears with those of Isis, Nephthys, and Serket in Tutankhamun’s tomb. She is that the guardian goddess over Duamutef, one among the Four Sons of Horus who watch over the canopic jars in the tombs and is also depicted as a just judge of the dead in the Hall of Truth.
Nekhbet – A protector goddess within the form of a vulture who guarded Upper Egypt. She was related to Wadjet, protector of Lower Egypt . the 2 are referred to as “The Two Ladies”.
Nekheny – A protector god within the form of a falcon who was patron of the town of Nekhen in the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE). His attributes were eventually absorbed by Horus.
Neper – God of the grains, son of the harvest goddess Renenutet. He was a personification of corn and related to Osiris as a fertility god. Neper predates Osiris and should have been one of the earlier gods who prefigure the Osiris Myth. Coffin Text II.95 refers to him because the god “living after he has died” and inscriptions relate him with the Dying and Reviving God figure prior to Osiris’ popularity.
Nephthys – A funerary goddess, one among the first five gods born of Geb and Nut after the creation of the world, wife of Set, twin sister of Isis, and mother of Anubis. Her name means “Mistress of the Temple Enclosure” or “Mistress of the House” pertaining to a heavenly house or temple. She is depicted as a lady with a house on her head. Nephthys is widely, and incorrectly, considered a minor deity when actually she was worshipped throughout Egypt from the earliest periods to the last dynasty to rule Egypt. She was considered the dark goddess to the sunshine of Isis but this carried no negative connotation, only balance. Nephthys features prominently within the Osiris myth when she transforms herself into the form of Isis to seduce Osiris, when she betrays the situation of Osiris’ body to Set, and when she helps her sister revive the dead king. She was referred to as “Friend of the Dead” for her care of the souls in the afterlife and professional mourners at funerals, who encouraged the open expression of grief, were referred to as the “Kites of Nephthys”. within the text The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys she calls the soul of Osiris back from the dead. This text was recited regularly at festivals, services, and funerals throughout Egypt.
Nu (Nun) and Naunet – Nu was the personification of the primordial chaos from which the planet arose. Naunet is his female aspect and consort. Nu is usually regarded as “Father of the Gods” while Naunet is only referenced regarding the Ogdoad, the grouping of eight primordial gods, four males matching four females, who represent the first elements of creation. In some later myths, the goddess Neith is related to Nu.
Nut – The primordial sky goddess who personified the cover of the heavens, wife of Geb (earth), mother of Osiris, Isis, Set, Nepththys, and Horus the Elder. After the primordial mound rose from the waters of chaos at creation, Atum (Ra) sent his children Shu and Tefnut bent create the world. once they returned, he was so happy he cry of joy which became human beings. These creatures had nowhere to measure and so Shu and Tefnut mated to give birth to Geb (earth) and Nut (sky). Their relationship was so intimate that it disturbed Atum who pushed Nut high above Geb and glued her there. He also decreed that she couldn’t give birth on any day of the year. Thoth, the god of wisdom, gambled with Iah, god of the moon, and won five days worth of moonlight which he transformed into days. Nut was ready to then give birth to her five children on five consecutive days in July which were not part of Atum’s original. In some versions of the story it’s Khonsu who loses the gamble with Thoth.
Ogdoad – The eight gods representing primordial elements of creation: Nu and Naunet (water); Heh and Hauhet (infinity); Kek and Kauket (darkness); Amun and Amaunet (hiddenness, obscurity). The concept of balance, so important to Egyptian culture, was epitomized within the various ogdoads of Egyptian gods/sprits of place.
Onuris (Anhur) – He was a god of war and hunting. His name means “He Who Brings Back The Distant One” which may be a reference to the story about his retrieval of the Eye of Ra from Nubia. during this tale, the attention of Ra goes forth from Egypt and transforms itself into a lion. Onuris hunts the lion, captures it, and returns it to Ra where it transforms into the goddess Mekhit who then becomes his consort. This story is an example of the Distant Goddess motif during which the Eye of Ra departs from the sun god and then is returned (or returns itself) bringing transformation. Onuris was considered a son of Ra and related to the god Shu. His image (as Anhur) appeared on the banners of the Egyptian army as he led them to war, protected them in battle, and brought them safely home. He was the patron god of the Egyptian army and of hunters.
Osiris – Lord and judge of the dead, one among the First Five gods born of Nut at the dawn of creation, and one among the most popular and enduring gods of Egypt. His name means “Powerful” or “Mighty”. Osiris was originally a fertility god who grew in popularity and influence through the Osiris Myth during which he is killed by his brother, Set, brought back to life by his wife Isis, fathers sky god Horus, and descends to the underworld as Judge of the Dead. within the Egyptian Book of the Dead he is mentioned frequently as the just judge in the Hall of Truth who weighs the hearts of the souls of the dead against the white feather of ma’at. he’s an early example of the Dying and Reviving God figure in mythology who leant himself to the later version of this figure, Jesus . Egyptian kings identified themselves with Osiris in death and he’s usually depicted as a mummy (symbolizing death) and with green or black skin (symbolizing the fertility of the Nile region and life). He was so popular that folks in ancient Egypt paid to have their bodies buried at Abydos near his cult center and those who could not afford that would pay for memorials to be erected to them or their loved ones at Abydos believing that proximity to Osiris on earth guaranteed easier access to paradise after death. His cult naturally merged thereupon of his wife and the Cult of Isis, with its symbolism of salvation, life eternal , the dying and reviving god, and therefore the divine son born of a virgin mother, would later influence the event of early Christianity.
Osiris-Apis – The Apis bull, traditionally related to the god Ptah, became linked to Osiris because the latter god grew more popular. At Saqqara, the priests began to worship a hybrid god they called Osiris-Apis who was the god in bull form. like the traditional Apis bull, a live bull was considered an incarnation of the god. When the sacred bull died it had been mummified with the same care given a king.
Pakhet – A hunting goddess in lioness form, her name means “She Who Scratches” or “Tearer”. She was a consort of Horus and related to the vengeful aspects of Sekhmet and the justice of Isis. She was thought to hunt in the dark and terrify her enemies.
Panebtawy – the kid god, personification of the king as divine son of Horus and also of Horus as a toddler . He was depicted as a young boy together with his finger to his lips, prefiguring the later image of Harpocrates, the Greek version of the kid Horus. His name means “Lord of the 2 Lands”. He was the son of Tasenetnofret, an area goddess of Kom Ombo who was a manifestation of Hathor.
Pataikos – Minor amuletic deities who represented the facility of the god Ptah. They were depicted as dwarf-gods and worn for cover .
Peak – referred to as “Peak of the West”, the personification of the very best peak of the cliffs which overshadowed the Valley of the Kings and worshipped by the workers at Deir el-Medina as a protective power.
Peteese and Pihor – Two human brothers referred to as “the sons of Kuper” who drowned in the Nile River near Dendur. They were deified for his or her association with Osiris, stemming from their death within the river, and served as local deities of protection. Augustus Caesar built a temple in their honor at Dendur which is now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in ny City. The temple’s reliefs show the god-brothers offering gifts to Isis.
Ptah – one among the oldest Egyptian gods who appears in the First Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE) but presumably dates from the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE). Ptah was the good god of Memphis, creator of the planet , lord of truth, and chief god of the town of Memphis and its surrounding area c. 3000 BCE. Ptah was originally the figure who stood on the primordial mound of the ben-ben at the creation of the planet . He was probably an early fertility god and is related to the moringa tree which, in an early myth, he liked to rest beneath. He was the patron god of sculptors and craftsmen also as builders of monuments as he was thought to have sculpted the earth. He was sometimes referred to as Ptah-Nun or Ptah-Naunet in his creative aspect, linking him with the primordial substances of the Ogdoad. he’s depicted as a mummified man wearing a skull cap holding the Was scepter of authority with the ankh and djed symbols at the top.
Ptah-hotep – Author of 1 the more famous Wisdom Texts, who was deified after his death and honored together with his own cult.
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris – A hybrid god of those three associated with creation, death, and rebirth. Worshipped within the period of the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE).
Qebhet – See Kabechet
Qebehsenuef – A protector god, one among the Four Sons of Horus who protected the canopic jar of the intestines. He presided over the west, had the shape of a hawk, and was watched over by Serket.
Qudshu (Qadesh) – Syrian goddess of affection , consort of the god of war Reshep, assimilated into Egyptian worship during the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). She was the goddess of pleasure and sacred ecstasy who was associated with Hathor, Anat, and Astarte. Her name means “Holy” and she or he is always depicted as a slim naked woman holding the symbols of eroticism and fertility; lotus blossoms in her right hand and snakes or papyrus stems in her left. She was widely venerated throughout Egypt. Her cult reenacted the sacred marriage between Qudshu and Reshep, a ritual long related to the Cult of Ishtar/Inanna in Mesopotamia and Astarte in Phoenicia.
Ra (Atum or Re) – the good sun god of Heliopolis whose cult spread across Egypt to become the most popular by the Fifth Dynasty (2498-2345 BCE). The pyramids of Giza are related to Ra as the supreme lord and creator god who ruled over the land of the living and the dead. He drives his sun barge across the heavens by day, showing another aspect of himself with each advance of the sun across the sky, then dives into the underworld at evening where the barge is threatened by the primordial serpent Apep (Apophis) and must be defended by the other gods and souls of the justified dead. Ra was among the foremost important and popular gods of Egypt. Even when the god Amun rose in prominence, Ra’s position was undiminished and he merged with Amun to become Amun-Ra, the supreme god.
Raettawy (Raet or Raet-Tawy) – She was the feminine aspect of Ra. She is related to Hathor and is depicted as closely resembling Hathor with the uraeus on her head holding the solar disk, sometimes with two feathers over the disk.
Ra-Harakhte (Raharakty or Ra-Harakhty) – A falcon god amalgam of Ra and Horus who personified the sun at the 2 horizons, sunrise and sunset. ‘Harakhte’ means “Horus of the Horizon”. he’s depicted as a man with a hawk’s head wearing the solar disk as a crown.
Renpet – A goddess who personified the year. She is represented in inscriptions by a notched palm branch signifying the passing of your time , the hieroglyphic image for ‘year’. She had no formal cult or temple but was an integral a part of the Egyptian’s understanding of time: that it was imbued, like everything else, with personality and vitality.
Renenutet (Renenet or Ernutet) – a really important goddess depicted as a cobra or a rearing cobra with the head of a woman. Her name means “Snake Who Nourishes” and she or he was goddess of nursing and rearing children. In time, she became closely related to Meskhenet, goddess of childbirth and destiny, and even superceded her to work out the length of a person’s life and significant events which would befall them. together with Meskhenet, she was also related to Neith and sometimes portrayed as the mother of Osiris, with Isis because the wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, as Atum’s wife or consort. within the afterlife she appeared as the “Lady of Justification” linking her with the goddess Ma’at. She was thought to guard the clothing worn by the king in the afterlife and so was also known as “Lady of the Robes”. during this capacity, she appeared as a fire-breathing cobra who drove away the enemies of the king. She was also a grain goddess referred to as “Lady of the Fertile Fields” and “Lady of the Granaries” who protected the harvest and was the mother of Nepri, god of grain. As a fertility goddess, she was further linked to the Nile and the inundation and so with Hapi, the god of the fertile mud of the Nile.
Reret – A protector deity within the form of a hippopotamus whose name means “Sow”. She represented the constellation Draco and was a protectress of the sun barge because it made its way through the underworld. because the constellation, she is usually known as Reret-weret (“The Great Sow”) and was referred to as Mistress of the Horizon. She is related to the better-known Hippopotamus goddess Taweret and, as a sky goddess and protective force, with Hathor and Nut.
Reshep – A Syrian god of war assimilated into Egyptian worship during the period of the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). He was the consort of the goddess of pleasure and sacred ecstasy Qudshu (Qadesh) and was worshipped with her in a triad which included the fertility god Min. The sacred marriage of Qudshu and Reshep was reenacted by their followers linking the cult thereto of Inanna/Ishtar of Mesopotamia which had long practiced the same ritual. Reshep is further linked to Mesopotamia through his identification in iconography with the Mesopotamian god of war Nergal. As a god of pestilence, he’s also linked to Set, god of chaos and therefore the arid wastes. Reshep is uniformly depicted as a robust warrior holding a raised war club and wearing a skirt and long Mesopotamian-styled beard.
Ruty – the dual lion gods who represented the eastern and western horizons. The name means “Pair of Lions”. They were originally related to Shu and Tefnut as sky deities and eventually became linked with Ra and the solar barge.
Sah – An astral god, the personification of the constellation Orion, usually paired with Sothis (Sopdet) as representations of the astral forms of Osiris and Isis. he is called “Father of the gods” within the Pyramid Texts and turned into an important thing of funerary rites wherein he welcomed the king to the afterlife. recognized additionally because the “Dweller in Orion”, Pyramid textual content bankruptcy 186 welcomes the soul, “inside the call of the Dweller in Orion, with a season in the sky and a season on earth” which may be understood as, “with a season in the sky after a season in the world”. he is depicted as a person retaining the ankh and turned into a scepter standing in a ship surrounded by means of stars in a nighttime sky.
Satis (Satet or Satit) – Goddess of the southern border of Egypt with Nubia and associated with Elephantine within the area of Aswan. Her name first seems on stone jars at Saqqara which have been located in the decrease chambers of Djoser’s Step Pyramid (c. 2670 BCE) and she is idea to be an older goddess from the Predynastic period of Egypt (c. 6000-3150 BCE). She is occasionally seen as the consort of Khnum, god of the Nile at Elephantine where the Egyptians believed the river originated and is related to the attention of Ra and distant Goddess motif in some testimonies where she returns from a excellent distance to carry transformation. on this ability, she is linked to the inundation of the Nile. She is likewise connected to Sothis (Sopdet), the personification of the big name Sirius whose appearance inside the night time sky heralded the inundation. She is depicted as a lady carrying the White Crown of higher Egypt with antelope horns.
Sebiumeker – A guardian god who was a major deity in Meroe, Kush as god of procreation and fertility. Sebiumeker is related to Atum as a author god and may were the supreme god of the pantheon inside the vicinity which is modern-day Sudan. His statuary, together with another god named Tabo, has regularly been determined close to doors giving upward push to the translation that he changed into a parent god. He might not have been, but; his placement at doors should have had a few which means relating transformation, specially whilst located on the doorways of temples.
Sed – An historic jackal deity who name first seems at the Palermo Stone from the 5th Dynasty (2498-2345 BCE) but who became most likely a good deal older. He changed into the protector of kingship and the character king. He presided over the Sed festival (additionally called the Heb-Sed competition) which turned into held each thirty years of a king’s rule to rejuvenate him. He was finally absorbed via Wepwawet or it could be that Wepwawet (whose name means “Opener of the approaches”) was without a doubt considered one of Sed’s epithets which became more popular. As protector of the divine king, Sed turned into associated with justice and so related to the goddess Ma’at.
Sefkhet-Abwy (Safekh-Aubi) – See Seshat.
Sekhmet – one of the most significant goddesses of ancient Egypt. Sekhmet become a leonine deity generally depicted as a girl with the top of a lion. Her call manner “powerful” and is usually interpreted as “The female powerful One”. She become a goddess of destruction and recuperation, of barren region winds and cool breezes. She turned into the daughter of Ra who appears in one of the most critical tales regarding the eye of Ra/remote Goddess motif. whilst Ra have become tired of the sins of humanity, he sent Sekhmet to damage them. She ravaged the land till the other gods implored Ra to stop her earlier than people had been destroyed completely. Ra had a vat of beer dyed red to attract Sekhmet’s blood lust and left it at Dendera where she drank it and fell into a deep sleep; whilst she woke she turned into the benevolent Hathor. Sekhmet persevered to exist in her leonine form, however, and changed into the purchaser deity of the navy for her powers of destruction and vengeance. She turned into known as “Smiter of the Nubians” in this regard but she additionally delivered herbal disaster. Plagues had been known as “Messengers of Sekhmet” or “Slaughterers of Sekhmet”. inside the identical way that she could carry the barren region winds, she ought to deflect them, and the identical with pestilence; just as she had introduced the plague, she may want to remedy it and changed into known as “Mistress of lifestyles” on this potential (and so became regularly invoked in recuperation spells and incantations by way of historic doctors). She was closely associated with different leonine deities inclusive of Bastet and Pakhet and was idea to be the aggressive, violent issue of the goddess Mut.
Sepa – A protector god in the form of a centipede with the top of a donkey or horns, called “The Centipede of Horus”. He become worshipped because the deity who protected one from snake bites and some shape of Sepa become commemorated inside the Predynastic duration (c. 6000-3150 BCE). He had his own temple at Heliopolis in which he changed into associated with Osiris in a mummified form symbolizing his protective powers inside the afterlife.
Serapis – The hybrid god created through Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt (r. 323-283 BCE), first ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE), the remaining dynasty to rule Egypt earlier than it become taken beneath Roman governance. Serapis turned into a mix of Osiris and Apis but his character and attributes have been a mixing of these two Egyptian deities with the Greek gods Zeus, Helios, Dionysius, Hades, and Asklepius. He turned into the supreme deity worshipped on the well-known Serapeum close by the Library of Alexandria. Ptolemy I wanted to create the type of multi-cultural society his past due commander and position version Alexander the exceptional had attempted and Serapis become an vital aspect in this. Serapis was a entire combination of Egyptian and Greek beliefs who ideal the form of society Ptolemy I encouraged.
Seret – A leonine shielding goddess in all likelihood from Libya. She is handiest referred to in a fifth Dynasty (2498-2345 BCE) inscription as a goddess of a area of Egypt inhabited particularly by using Libyans – the third decrease Egypt nome (province). just like the other leonine deities, she is a fierce protector of her followers and avenges wrongs accomplished to them.
Serket (Selket, Serqet or Serkis) – She changed into a protecting and also an essential funerary goddess in all likelihood originating within the Predynastic length (c. 6000-3150 BCE) and first stated throughout the primary Dynasty of Egypt (c. 3150-2890 BCE). She is fine recognised from her golden statue found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. Serket became a scorpion goddess depicted as a woman with a scorpion on her head and palms outstretched in a protective pose. She may have been an early mother Goddess who evolved right into a deity who blanketed humans (particularly kids) from scorpion venom and then to one that covered from all venom. A story referred to as Isis and the Seven Scorpions tells of the way Isis was insulted with the aid of a rich female once and Serket, who had despatched her seven scorpions along as Isis’ bodyguards, informed one among them to sting the female’s son. The boy was going to die from the venom but Isis stored him and forgave the woman. Afterwards, Serket observed Isis’ instance of forgiveness and protected different children from scorpions. Her priests have been in large part physicians who invoked her call in restoration. inside the afterlife she helped manual the souls of the dead to paradise and guarded a sure dangerous phase of travel. along with Isis, Neith, and Nephthys, she watches over the four Sons of Horus as they shield the viscera of the useless in tombs.
Seshat (Sefkhet-Abwy or Safekh-Aubi) – She was the goddess of writing, books, notations, and measurements. Her name manner “The girl Scribe” and she or he was the consort of Thoth, god of awareness and writing (even though sometimes she is depicted as his daughter). She is the patroness of libraries, each public and private, and changed into referred to as “She who’s major inside the house of Books”. She changed into also the purchaser goddess of scribes. As goddess of measurements she ensured the king measured efficiently in commissioning the building of temples and monuments and assisted him in measurements for rituals. She is first mentioned in the 2d Dynasty (c. 2890-2670 BCE) as assisting king Khasekemwy in this regard. Her association with measurements eventually made her the patroness of builders, architects, and people who dealt in accounting for farm animals, other animals, and captives seized in warfare. even though she by no means had a temple of her very own, as R.H. Wilkinson observes, “by using virtue of her function inside the basis rite she become a part of each temple constructing” (167). She is depicted as a girl sporting a leopard skin over a gown with a scarf preserving a stay with a celebrity on pinnacle. She holds a writing enforce in her right hand and the notched palm stalk representing the years’ passage in her left.
Set (Seth) – God of warfare, chaos, storms, and pestilence. His call is translated as “Instigator of confusion” and “Destroyer”. he is depicted as a crimson beast with cloven hooves and a forked tale and is the prototype for the later iconography of the Christian devil. Set turned into at first a hero-god who drove away the serpent Apep (Apophis) from the barge of the sun god and killed it nightly. He changed into a wilderness god who delivered the evil winds of the dry lands to the luxurious Nile Valley and become associated with foreign lands and those. His consorts have been Anat and Astarte, each goddesses related to battle and both from foreign countries, as well as Taweret, the benign protecting goddess of childbirth and fertility. Set is regularly characterized as “evil”, and did happen many evil characteristics, but became no longer regarded via the ancient Egyptians as an embodiment of evil or darkness. He turned into alternatively visible as a essential stability to gods like Osiris and Horus who represented all things noble and desirable, fertility, power, and eternity. Set is excellent called the sector’s first murderer in the fable of Osiris in which he kills his brother to usurp the throne. Isis returns Osiris to existence but, because he’s incomplete, descends to the underworld as Lord of the useless. Isis offers delivery to Osiris’ son, Horus, who grows up to undertaking set for the throne. Their battles, which lasted for 80 years, are described within the textual content The Contendings of Horus and Set and have been resolved in one version by using Isis at the same time as, in another, via Neith with Horus declared rightful king and Set banished to the barren region lands.
Shay (Shai) – The personification of destiny. Shay presided over one’s non-public future and so changed into associated with goddesses like Meskhenet and Renenutet. just like The Fates of the historical Greeks, nobody should resist or alter Shay’s selections. The student Wilkinson cites a text known as commands of Amenemopet which states, “None can ignore Shay” (128). This announcement epitomizes Shay’s chief function: inevitability. he is depicted as being present at the weighing of the coronary heart of the soul within the afterlife or as a man status in a posture of staying power. at some stage in the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE), when Egyptian gods were hellenized, he was called Agathodaimon, the serpent deity who should inform one’s destiny.
Shed – A protecting god who guarded towards private damage from wild animals or mortal enemies. He became invoked by hunters and infantrymen and known as “He Who Rescues” and “The Enchanter”. He changed into lord of the wild animals and guns and so should control each to defend someone who invoked his call. He was also sought in protection against magic spells cast with the aid of one’s enemies and probably against demons or ghosts. he is depicted as a younger man with shaved head besides for the sidelock denoting teens and contains a quiver of arrows. He regularly grasps serpents in his hands as though crushing them. finally his attributes were absorbed through Horus even though he changed into still commemorated through humans in their homes and through amulets.
Shentayet – An difficult to understand shielding goddess whose name manner “Widow” and who changed into associated with that issue of Isis who lost her husband after which introduced him returned to lifestyles. This component was known as Isis-Shentayet. pretty likely invoked as a protectress of widows however references to her are rare and Isis fulfilled that position as she did so many others.
Shepet – A shielding goddess who turned into an factor of the hippopotamine deities Reret or Taweret worshipped at Dendera. In iconography she seems like both of those but with a crocodile head.
Shesmetet – A protecting leonine goddess referred to as “female of Punt” and most likely an essential goddess brought to Egypt via alternate with Punt. She is commonly regarded as an element of Bastet or Sekhmet however quite possibly she became a far older deity whose attributes were absorbed by using later leonine goddesses. Her call is stated as early as the First Dynasty (c. 3150-2890 BCE) and leant itself to the Shesmetet girdle, a belt of beads, worn with the aid of the kings of that time. She is depicted as a lady with the top of a lion.
Shezmu – God of wine and, later, of fragrance and plenty who personified the high-quality and bad aspects of drunkenness. Shezmu is depicted in the Pyramid textual content 403 killing and cooking the gods for the king’s pleasure and, via the middle kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) changed into visible tormenting the souls of the lifeless as he “lassoes the damned and corrals them for slaughter, squeezing their heads like grapes in a bloody image of destruction” (Wilkinson, 129). His picture changed into softened via others showing his benign and non violent aspect as lord of the wine press and this become softened similarly as he have become related to oils and perfumes.
Shu – The primordial god of the air whose name approach “vacancy”. He become born at the start of advent of Atum (Ra) and despatched to create the world along with his sister Tefnut (goddess of moisture). the 2 have been gone so long that Atum came to miss them and sent his eye (the eye of Ra) in search of them. while the eye back with them, Atum became so satisfied he cried and his tears created people. She and Tefnut then mated and gave start to Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) who Atum driven high aside from each different, imparting a place for humans to stay. Mist changed into attributed to him as “Lakes of Shu” and the clouds as “Bones of Shu” and he turned into also associated with mild and brightness. on this regard he got here to be connected to Thoth and Khonsu, both associated with the moon, because of moonlight.
Sia – The personification of notion and thoughtfulness who represented the heart (seat of emotion, concept, and character). Sia fashioned a dyad with Hu (representing the tongue), personification of the authority of the spoken word, and a triad with Hu and Heka, god of magic and medicinal drug however also the primordial force in the universe which empowered existence and sustained ma’at. Sia represented the mind while Hu symbolized the word of Ptah (or Atum) which introduced idea into fact and Heka become the underlying force which gave them strength. Sia is depicted as a man status at the right aspect of Ptah (later, Atum/Ra) and held his papyrus scroll. in the Valley of the Kings he is seen in paintings as a member of the crew aboard Ra’s sun barge.
Sky Bull – The deity who presided over the heavens and the afterlife as a protector, additionally known as “Bull of the West” for his association with the afterlife. typically understood to be the husband of the seven cows that are visible with him.
Sobek – An vital defensive deity within the shape of a crocodile or a man with a crocodile’s head, Sobek became a god of water however also associated with medicine and in particular surgical operation. His call means “Crocodile” and he changed into lord of marshes and wetlands and any other wet areas of Egypt. within the Pyramid Texts he is claimed to be the son of Neith and turned into worshipped broadly from the old country (c. 2613-2181 BCE) onwards. As god of wetlands he changed into related to fertility and procreation however, because the crocodile god, additionally with surprising death. He was stated to separate other halves from their husbands at a whim. Sobek lived on a legendary mountain on the horizon which he ruled from and so was related to the authority of the king as he, himself, become lord of a website. This link with the horizon related him with Ra and led to the shape of Ra referred to as Sobek-Ra. Sobek is one of the great recognized gods of historic Egypt and turned into extraordinarily famous in his time. His monks kept live crocodiles in the temples who have been fed lavishly on the exceptional cuts of meat and treated better than many humans of the time. while these crocodiles died they were mummified and buried with all of the care given to someone. He changed into additionally related to the Nile which turned into stated to trouble forth because the sweat of Sobek.
Sokar (Seker) – A shielding falcon god of Memphis who turned into at the beginning an agricultural deity and one of the oldest in Egypt. His festival turned into one of the earliest located and, merged with the Khoiak festival of Osiris, persisted to be celebrated during Egypt’s history. He advanced from a god of agriculture and growth to the god of craftsmen and father or mother of the Memphis necropolis after Osiris have become extra popular. Sokar is often depicted as a funerary mound surrounded by way of falcon heads, as a falcon, or as a falcon-headed guy. he is associated with the afterlife as mother or father of the entrance to the underworld and the god who includes the deceased king’s soul in his barge to paradise. In time, he have become associated with Ptah and then Osiris to finally combine by way of the middle nation (2040-1782 BCE) into Ptah-Sokar-Osiris who became a hybrid funerary deity presiding over the afterlife.
Sons of Horus – See four Sons of Horus.
Sopdu (Soped or Sopedu) – A protective god of the eastern border of Egypt who guarded over the outposts and soldiers on the frontier. he’s depicted as a falcon with a flail over the right wing or as a bearded guy with a crown proposing feathers. Sopdu became associated with Horus and the deified king in his astral shape. Wilkinson writes, “The deceased king, in his role as Osiris-Orion, is stated to impregnate Isis because the star Sothis and to provide Horus-Sopdu” (211). within the earthly realm, he ensured the proper sources reached the jap border garrisons and helped the king manipulate native populations in the ones regions.
Sothis – The personification of the megastar Sirius (the “dog megastar”) whose appearance heralded the yearly inundation of the Nile. She turned into worshipped as a cow-goddess inside the Predynastic length (c. 6000-3150 BCE) associated with Sirius. She changed into the consort of Sah, who personified the constellation Orion, and the 2 had been associated with Osiris and Isis. in this position, she changed into the mother of Sopdu and so appealed to as a protective impact. She become additionally related to Satis who become connected to the inundation of the Nile as consort of Khnum. Early depictions of Sothis constitute her as a cow with a plant between her horns at the same time as later pictures display her as a woman sporting the White Crown of higher Egypt with horns on her head or feathers with a five-pointed celebrity above her. She have become increasingly identified with Isis and turned into in the end absorbed into that goddess absolutely. Isis refers to herself as Sothis in a duplicate of the textual content of The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys from the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE) displaying how the assimilation turned into almost entire by that point.
Souls of Nekhen and Pe – defensive spirits who were taken into consideration the ancestral souls of the city of Nekhen in top Egypt (additionally known as Hierakonopolis) and the city of Pe in decrease Egypt (additionally known as Buto). these spirits symbolically united top and lower Egypt and served the king in life and through loss of life. even as the king lived he changed into identified with Horus, who the souls encouraged, and when the king died he became related to Osiris, whom the souls mourned and venerated. The souls of Pe are depicted as guys with falcon heads and people of Nekhen as jackal-headed. each are visible in tomb inscriptions of the kings kneeling to honor the deceased king’s arrival within the afterlife.
Star Deities – Gods and goddesses identified with the night sky. by the time of the center state (2040-1782 BCE) the Egyptians had diagnosed 5 of the planets which they called “Stars That know No rest” and associated with gods: the called Mercury ‘Sebegu’ (a shape of the god Set); Venus (“the one Who Crosses” and “God of the Morning”); Mars (“Horus of the Horizon” and “Horus the pink”); Jupiter (“Horus Who Limits the two Lands”); Saturn (“Horus Bull of the Heavens”). further, the star Sirius changed into associated with Sothis after which Isis whilst Orion represented the god Sah, “Father of the Gods”. the appearance of Sirius heralded the inundation of the Nile, the promise of fertility, and represented the cyclical nature of lifestyles and so came to be connected to Osiris, the dying and reviving god, and Isis, the only who revived him. the celebrities then have been called “fans of Osiris” who sailed throughout the night time sky according with divine pattern. Sah and Sothis within the heavens reflected the divine couple Osiris and Isis and the god Sopdu, (son of Sothis), the astral form of Horus. for that reason the night sky instructed the stories of the maximum meaningful stories of the Egyptian subculture and confident the human beings of an eternity in the gods’ presence when they regarded up on the stars.
Sutekh – The Semitic name for the god Set (Seth) which the human beings known as the Hyksos added all through the second Intermediate length (c. 1782-1570 BCE). The Hyksos identified Set with the warlike factor of their god Baal. Set became called Sutekh through the reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BCE) and invoked as a vanguard in warfare.
Ta-Bitjet – A protective goddess in particular in opposition to poisonous bites and stings. She is regularly invoked in restoration spells and associated with the goddess Serket. finally she turned into absorbed into Isis.
Tasenetnofret – A shielding goddess of Kom Ombo whose name manner “the coolest Sister” or “The stunning Sister”. She turned into a nearby manifestation of the goddess Hathor, consort of Horus, and mom of Panebtawy.
Tatenen – An earth god who personified the primordial mound at introduction and symbolized the land of Egypt. he’s maximum in all likelihood the equal god known as Khenty-Tjenenet in the length of the antique state (c. 2613-2181 BCE). He changed into worshipped at Memphis during the middle kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) and endured to be honored commonly in that region through the relaxation of Egypt’s history. His affiliation with the primordial mound connected him with Ptah and, through Ptah, with Atum and Ra, the alternative names for the creator god/sun god. Tatenen became a bisexual god, referred to as “mom of all the Gods” in one textual content.
Taweret (Tauret) – A defensive goddess in the shape of a hippopotamus, the maximum famous hippopotamus deity from ancient Egypt, related to each Isis and Hathor. Taweret is a goddess of childbirth and fertility who became very popular at some point of Egypt’s records. She become invoked often for protection of youngsters and help all through being pregnant and delivery. The historical Egyptians observed the female hippopotamus to be extraordinarily protecting of her children which brought about the shape of this goddess. The male hippopotamus changed into very competitive and taken into consideration one of the maximum risky animals in Egypt so he turned into related to the god Set ensuing in snap shots of Taweret as consort of Set despite the fact that the 2 deities had not anything in commonplace. Taweret is closely related to Hathor and referred to as “Follower of Horus” both of which distance her from Set. She is similarly identified because the consort of Bes, the dwarf god of childbirth, sexuality, humor, and warfare. Like Bes, Taweret became featured on family gadgets such as furniture, beauty instances, pots, spoons and in fertility snap shots in the home.
Tayet (Tait) – Goddess of weaving who provided the garments for the king. She was worshipped from the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE) where she was represented as guarding the king’s head, protecting him after death, gathering up his bones, and assuring him welcome by the opposite gods in the afterlife. She later became related to embalming and was said to weave the cloth for the embalming tents and, later, the bandages used for wrapping the mother which were known as “wrappings from the hands of Tayet” which associated her with Nephthys.
Tefnut – Goddess of moisture, sister of Shu, daughter of Atum (Ra) at the creation of the planet . Shu and Tefnut were the primary two gods Atum created either by mating with his shadow or by spitting. R. H. Wilkinson notes that her name represents the sound of spitting and she or he was often represented “by a pair of lips, spitting, in late texts” (183). She is goddess of the atmosphere of the lower world, the earth, even as Shu is god of the upper atmosphere above the earth. Tefnut is that the mother of Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) who were born so human beings could have somewhere to live. She is most frequently depicted as a woman seated with a lion’s head or a serpent with a lion’s head.
Tenenit (Tenenet or Tjenenet) – Goddess of beer, brewing and childbirth. Her name comes from “tenemu” which suggests “beer”. She was the consort of the god Montu and related to Meskhenet as a goddess of royal births. She is that the patron goddess of brewers.
Tetrads – Representations of completeness corresponding sometimes to the four cardinal points of the compass and best represented by the Four Sons of Horus. Balance was a crucial concept to the ancient Egyptians and the numbers two, four, and eight figure significantly in representations of the deities (as do three, six, and nine). Every male god features a female counterpart or a feminine aspect, the four goddesses Isis, Neith, Nephthys, and Serket watch the Four Sons of Horus, and therefore the Ogdoad was the grouping of the eight gods of creative substances.
Thoth – God of writing and wisdom, truth and integrity, one among the most important deities in the Egyptian pantheon worshipped from the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) on to the Ptolemy (323-30 BCE), the last to rule Egypt. He was probably originally a lunar god, son of Atum (Ra) but later texts represent him because the son of Horus. Thoth is depicted in some texts as a baboon but mostly as a person with the head of an ibis holding a writing implement. he’s credited with inventing writing and was the record-keeper of the gods. He was referred to as “Lord of Time” and “Reckoner of Years” because he marked the passage of time and, through the powerful magic of his divine knowledge of words, gave the king an extended reign so he could maintain order on earth. He was the patron god of libraries and of scribes. In every story told of him, Thoth is that the divine friend and benefactor of humanity who gave people understanding through the gift of the written word. He appears in one story as gambling for the five days required for Nut to offer birth to the First Five Gods and in others as mediating between the gods and delivering messages. within the afterlife he stands with Osiris and keeps records in the Hall of Truth at the ritual of the Weighing of the Heart. His consort was Seshat, his daughter or his wife, who was his female counterpart and also patron deity of libraries and books.
Tjenenyet – A protective goddess from the 12th Dynasty (1991-1802 BCE) who was presumably worshipped earlier. She was consort of the god Montu and was primarily worshipped at Hermonthis (Armant) near Thebes.
Tree Goddesses – variety of well-known Egyptian goddesses were associated with trees, most notably Isis, Hathor, and Nut. Male gods were sometimes linked to a specific tree but it seems only in specific myths or imagery. Hathor was famously related to the sycamore tree and known as “Lady of the Sycamore” but Isis was also linked to this tree. The practice of burying a body during a wooden casket was thought to be a return of the deceased to the womb of the Mother Goddess.
Triads – Important groupings of three deities, usually a father-god, mother-god, and child-god, the 2 best known being the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Khons and therefore the Abydos Triad of Osiris, Isis, and Horus. There are samples of other triads, however, which didn’t follow this pattern such as the Amun-Ra-Ptah Triad where all three gods represented the same celestial power (the sun). Triads also are seen in depictions of the afterlife where ram, lion, and jackal-headed gods are grouped together.
Tutu – A protective god referred to as “He Who Keeps Enemies at a Distance”, worshipped during the latter a part of Egypt’s history. He warded off demons and sorcery and was depicted as a striding lion with the head of a man, large wings, and a snake for a tail.
Uat-Ur – The personification of the Mediterranean . See Wadj-Wer.
Uajyt (Wadjet or Uto) – related to Nekhbet, a protective goddess of Lower Egypt . She is depicted as a serpent with a woman’s head. She is a facet of Wadjet, sister of Nekhbet, in later images from Lower Egypt .
Unut (Wenet or Wenut) – A protective goddess worshipped at Hermopolis and referred to as “The Swift One”. She was depicted as a lady with a rabbit’s head or a serpent with a rabbit’s head and is often referred to as “the rabbit goddess”. She was related to the god Wenenu, depicted as a person with a rabbit’s head, who was a facet of Osiris or sometimes Ra. She is understood primarily from amulets showing her image.
Wadjet – an excellent protective goddess and patroness of Lower Egypt, one among the oldest deities in the Egyptian pantheon, represented because the rearing cobra which became the king’s insignia (the uraeus). She was also mentioned as Uajyt in her aggressive form and was the counter-balance to the more motherly Nekhbet, her sister. Wadjet was worshipped as a crucial goddess in the Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) and by the first Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE) was the supreme deity of Lower Egypt represented frequently with Nekhbet who symbolized Upper Egypt. She was the daughter of Ra and one among the goddesses featured in stories about the Eye of Ra. At the dawn of creation she was sent forth by Ra as his eye to seek out Shu and Tefnut when they had gone off to create the world. She planted the primary papyrus plants, laid out the papyrus fields within the swamps of the Nile Delta, and helped Isis raise Horus there once they were hiding from Set. Among her titles is Weret-Hekau, meaning “Great of Magic” and she or he was regularly invoked for protection against demons, bad luck, or ghosts.
Wadj-Wer (Uat-Ur) – The personification of the Mediterranean whose name means “The Great Green”. Recent scholarship has changed the normal view of this god and he is now believed to have personified the lakes, swamps, and lagoons of the Delta region almost the Mediterranean. Wilkinson notes inscriptions which reference “crossing the good green” by foot which would indicate a land-crossing through the Delta region instead of the sea. He was worshipped as early because the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE) and continues to be referenced through the remainder of Egypt’s history, especially through protective amulets and tomb inscriptions.
Waset (Wosret) – A protective goddess of the town of Thebes whose name means “The Powerful Female One”. She was the personification of the town which was also known as ‘Waset’. She was originally a facet of Hathor but emerged with her own distinct character and iconography by the time of the Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1782 BCE). She is depicted as a lady holding the Was sceptre and ankh and a staff adorned with ribbons but is also shown with a bow and arrows and an axe representing the military might of Thebes.
Weneg – A protective god first referenced within the Old Kingdom period (c. 2613-2181 BCE) who delayed the sky and maintained order between the heavens and the earth. he’s closely associated with ma’at the concept and Ma’at the goddess who personified harmony in that he served as a just mediator between the gods in their disputes.
Wenenu – A protective god, aspect of Osiris or sometimes Ra, consort of Unut. he’s depicted as a rabbitt-headed man.
Wepset – A protective goddess whose name means “She Who Burns” who destroys the enemies of Osiris. She is typically represented as a serpent but later as a woman wearing the uraeus with horns and the sun disk overhead. She features in stories concerning the attention of Ra and is one of the personifications of the Distant Goddess motif where the Eye of Ra departs from the god and is returned, or returns itself, bringing transformation.
Wepwawet (Wepiu or Wepuaut) – one among the most ancient gods of Egypt and the oldest depiction of a jackal god, pre-dating Anubis, with whom he’s often confused. His name means “Opener of the Ways” and this has been interpreted as opening the way for king in battle, opening the thanks to the afterlife, and opening the way at one’s birth. he’s depicted on the Narmer Palette (c. 3150 BCE) and related to Wadjet. He eventually became closely related to Horus and, as Wepwawet-Ra, with the sun god Ra. he’s depicted as a jackal, sometimes wearing a shawl with a falcon before him.
Werethekau (Weret-Hekau) – a crucial protective goddess or, more often, an epithet applied to other female deities like Isis. The name means “Great of Magic”and is related to the uraeus and the crown of Lower Egypt. Wadjet is understood as Weret-Hekau, as is Isis, but the name seems to possess also designated a specific goddess of protection depicted as a rearing serpent although this could simply be Wadjet in her aggressive form.
Yah – See Iah.
Yam – The Phoenician god of the ocean who battled the Lord Baal for control of the world. He entered the Egyptian pantheon through trade and made his way into Egyptian mythology through stories of his battles with Set. He was the personification of the raging sea and greatly feared. No temples were ever raised to him but he’s referenced in some manuscripts which indicate he was a concern to seafarers who may have worn amulets with his image for protection.
Zenenet – Another name for Isis within the city of Hermonthis (modern-day Armant) near Thebes.