Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Who Was Hatshepsut? And What Is The Story Of The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut?

Hatshepsut(r. 1479- 1458 BCE) was the first female ruler of ancient Egypt to rule as a male with the complete authority of the pharaoh. Her name means” Foremost of Noble Women” or” She’s First Among Noble Women”. She began her reign as regent to her stepson Thutmose III(r. 1458- 1425 BCE) who would succeed her.

originally, she ruled as a woman as depicted in statuary but, at around the seventh time of her reign, she chose to be depicted as a male pharaoh in statuary and reliefs though still pertaining to herself as a female in her eulogies.

She was the fifth pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty during the period known as the New Kingdom(c. 1570 to. 1069 BCE) and is regarded as one of the most prosperous and the period of the Egyptian Empire.
Although she’s occasionally cited as the first female ruler of Egypt, or the only one, there were women who reigned before her similar to Merneith(r.c. 3000 BCE) in the Early Dynastic Period( presumably as regent) and Sobeknefru(r.c. 1807- 1802 BCE) in the Middle Kingdom and Twosret(r. 1191- 1190 BCE) after her toward the end of the 19th Dynasty. Hatshepsut, though not the first or last, is really the best-known female ruler of ancient Egypt after Cleopatra VII(r.c. 69- 30 BCE) and one of the most successful monarchs in Egyptian history.

Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut

Her reign was one of the most prosperous and peaceful in Egypt’s history. There’s evidence that she commissioned military peregrinations beforehand on and she clearly kept the army at peak effectiveness but, for the utmost part, her time as pharaoh is characterized by successful trade, a booming economy, and her numerous public works systems which employed laborers from across the nation.

Her expedition to Punt seems to have been legendary and was clearly the accomplishment she was most proud of, but it also seems that all of her trade initiatives were inversely successful and she was suitable to employ an entire nation in building her monuments. These workshops were so beautiful and so finely crafted that they would be claimed by latterly kings as their own.

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Among the duties of any Egyptian monarch was the construction of monumental structure projects to honor the gods and save the memory of their reigns for eternity. These building projects weren’t just some grandiose gesture on the part of the king to assuage the pride but were central to the foundation and development of a unified state.

Building projects assured work for the peasant agriculturists during the period of the Nile’s alluvion, encouraged concinnity through collaborative trouble, pride in one’s donation to the project, and handed openings for the expression of ma’at( harmony/ balance), the central value of the culture, through collaborative – and public – trouble.

Contrary to the view so frequently held, the great monuments of Egypt weren’t built by Hebrew slaves nor by the slave labor of any kind. professed and unskilled Egyptian workers built the palaces, temples, pyramids, and monuments, and raised the obelisks as paid workers.

From the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt(c. 2613- 2181 BCE) through the New Kingdom(c. 1570-c. 1069 BCE) and, to a less extent, from the Third Intermediate Period(c. 1069- 525) through the Ptolemaic Dynasty( 323- 30 BCE) the great rulers of Egypt created some of the most impressive cities, temples, and monuments in the world and these were all created by collaborative Egyptian effort.

There are numerous exemplifications of these great monuments and temples throughout Egypt from the pyramid complex at Giza in the north to the temple at Karnak in the south. Among these, the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut( 1479- 1458 BCE) at Deir el- Bahri stands out as one of the most impressive.
The structure was modeled after the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II(c. 2061- 2010 BCE), the great Theban prince who innovated the 11th Dynasty and initiated the Middle Kingdom of Egypt( 2040- 1782 BCE). Mentuhotep II was considered a’ second Menes’ by his coevals, a reference to the legendary king of the First Dynasty of Egypt, and he continued to be reverenced largely throughout the rest of Egypt’s history.

The temple of Mentuhotep II was erected during his reign across the river from Thebes at Deir el- Bahri, the first structure to be raised there. It was a fully innovative conception in that it would serve as both tomb and temple.

The king would not actually be buried in the complex but in a tomb cut into the rock of the cliffs behind it. The entire structure was designed to blend organically with the girding geography and the towering cliffs and was the most striking tomb complex raised in Upper Egypt and the most elaborate created since the Old Kingdom.

Hatshepsut, an admirer of Mentuhotep II’s temple had her own designed to reflect it but on an important grander scale and, just in case anyone should miss the comparison, ordered it built exactly next to the older temple. Hatshepsut was always keenly apprehensive of ways in which to elevate her public image and immortalize her name; the mortuary temple achieved both ends.

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

It would be an homage to the’ alternate Menes’ but, more importantly, link Hatshepsut to the majesty of the history while, at the same time, surpassing former monumental works in every respect. As a woman in a traditionally male position of power, Hatshepsut understood she demanded to establish her authority and the legality of her reign in much more egregious ways that her forerunners, and the scale and fineness of her temple are evidence of this.

The Temple Design & Layout

She delegated her mortuary temple at some point soon after coming to power in 1479 BCE and had it designed to tell the story of her life and reign and surpass any other in class and majesty. The temple was designed by Hatshepsut’s steward and confidant Senenmut, who was also tutor to Neferu- Ra and, conceivably, Hatshepsut’s lover.

Senenmut modeled it precisely on that of Mentuhotep II but took every aspect of the earlier structure and made it larger, longer, and more elaborate. Mentuhotep II’s temple featured a large stone ramp from the first yard to the second level; Hatshepsut’s second level was reached by a much longer and indeed more elaborate ramp one reached by passing through lush auditoriums and an elaborate entrance pylon adjoined by towering obelisks.

Walking through the first yard( ground level), one could go directly through the archways on either side( which led down alleys to small ramps up to the second level) or stroll up the central ramp, whose entrance was adjoined by statues of lions. On the second level, there were two reflecting pools and sphinxes lining the pathway to another ramp which brought a guest up to the third level.


The first, second, and third situations of the tabernacle all featured galilee and elaborate reliefs, oils, and statuary. The second yard would house the tomb of Senenmut to the right of the ramp leading up to the third level, and a meetly opulent tomb placed beneath the second yard with no outside features in order to save harmony. All three levels instanced the traditional Egyptian value of harmony and, as there was no structure to the left-wing of the ramp, there could be no apparent tomb on its right.

On the right side of the ramp leading to the third level was the Birth Colonnade, and on the left the Punt Colonnade. The Birth Colonnade told the story of Hatshepsut’s godly creation with Amun as her true father.
As the daughter of the most mighty and popular god in Egypt at the time, Hatshepsut was claiming for herself the special privilege to rule the country as a man would. She established her special relationship with Amun beforehand on, conceivably before taking the throne, in order to neutralize critique of her reign on account of her gender.

Birth colonnade Hatshepsut temple
Birth colonnade Hatshepsut temple

The Punt Colonnade related her noble passage to the mysterious’ land of the gods’ which the Egyptians hadn’t visited in centuries. Her capability to launch such a passage is evidence of the wealth of the country under her rule and also her ambition in reviving the traditions and glory of history. Punt was known to the Egyptians since the Early Dynastic Period(c. 3150-c. 2613 BCE) but either the route had been forgotten or Hatshepsut’s more recent forerunners didn’t consider a passage worth their time.

At either end of the second-level colonnade were two temples The Temple of Anubis to the north and The Temple of Hathor to the south. As a woman in a position of power, Hatshepsut had a special relationship with the goddess Hathor and invoked her frequently. A temple to Anubis, the guardian, and companion to the dead, was a common point of any mortuary complex; one would not wish to slight the god who was responsible for leading one’s soul from the grave to the afterlife.


The ramp to the third level, centered impeccably between the Birth and Punt colonnades, brought a guest up to another colonnade, lined with statues, and the three most significant structures the Royal Cult Chapel, Solar Cult Chapel, and the Sanctuary of Amun. The whole temple complex was erected on the cliffs of Deir el- Bahri and the Sanctuary of Amun – the most sacred area of the point – was cut from the cliff itself.

The Royal Cult Chapel and Solar Cult Chapel both depicted scenes of the royal family making immolations to the gods. Amun- Ra, the compound creator/ sun god, is featured prominently in the Solar Cult Chapel with Hatshepsut and her immediate family kneeling before him in honor.

Desecration & Erasure from History

Throughout Hatshepsut’s reign, Thutmose III hadn’t been footling at court but was leading the armies of Egypt on successful juggernauts of conquest. Hatshepsut had given him supreme command of the military, and he didn’t fail her. Thutmose III is considered one of the topmost military leaders in the history of ancient Egypt and the most constantly successful in the period of the New Kingdom.

Inc. 1457 BCE Thutmose III led his armies to triumph at the Battle of Megiddo, a crusade conceivably anticipated and prepared for by Hatshepsut, and latterly her name disappears from the historical record. Thutmose III had all substantiation of her reign destroyed by erasing her name and having her image cut from all public monuments. He also backdated his reign to the death of his father and Hatshepsut’s accomplishments as pharaoh were credited to him. Senenmut and Neferu- Ra were dead by this time, and it seems anyone differently who was personally devoted to Hatshepsut lacked the power or inclination to challenge Thutmose III’s policy regarding his step-mother’s memory.


To abolish one’s name on earth was to condemn that person to virtuality. In ancient Egyptian belief, one demanded to be remembered in order to continue one’s eternal journey in the afterlife. Although Thutmose III seems to have ordered this extreme measure, there’s no substantiation of any hostility between him and his stepmother, and significantly, he left fairly untouched the story of her godly birth and passage to Punt inside her mortuary tabernacle; only public citation of her was canceled. This would indicate that he didn’t harbor Hatshepsut any ill will personally but was trying to annihilate any overt substantiation of a strong female pharaoh.

The ruler of Egypt was traditionally male, in keeping with the legendary first king of Egypt, the god Osiris. Although no one knows for sure why Thutmose III chose to remove his stepmother from history, it’s presumably because she broke with the tradition of male monarchs and he didn’t want women in the unborn emulating Hatshepsut in this way.

The most vital duty of the pharaoh was the conservation of ma’at and recognizing the traditions of the history was a part of this in that it maintained balance and social stability. Indeed though Hatshepsut’s reign had been successful, there was no way to guarantee that another woman, inspired by her illustration, would be suitable to rule as effectively.

To allow the precedent of a suitable woman as pharaoh to stand, thus, could have been relatively threatening to Thutmose III’s understanding of ma’at.
Although the inner reliefs, oils, and eulogies of her temple were left largely complete, some were defaced by Thutmose III and others by the later pharaoh Akhenaten( 1353- 1336 BCE).

By the time of Akhenaten, Hatshepsut had been forgotten. Thutmose III had replaced her images with his own, buried her statues, and built his own mortuary temple at Deir el- Bahri in between Hatshepsut’s and Mentuhotep II’s. His temple is much smaller than either, but this wasn’t a concern since he basically took over Hatshepsut’s temple as his own.

 Thutmose III
Thutmose III

Akhenaten, thus, had no quarrel with Hatshepsut as a female pharaoh; his problem was with her god. Akhenaten is best known as the’ heretic king’ who abolished the traditional religious beliefs and practices of Egypt and replaced them with his own brand of deism centered on the solar god Aten. Although he’s routinely hailed as a visionary for this by fundamentalists, his action was most likely motivated far more by politics than theology.


The Cult of Amun had grown so important by Akhenaten’s time that it rivaled the throne – a problem faced by a number of kings throughout Egypt’s history – and rescinding that cult along with all the others was the quickest and most effective way of restoring balance and wealth to the monarchy. Although Hatshepsut’s temple( understood by Akhenaten to be that of Thutmose III) was allowed to stand, the images of Amun were cut from the exterior and inner walls.

Hatshepsut’s ReDiscovery

Hatshepsut’s name stayed unknown for the rest of Egypt’s history and up until the mid-19th century CE. When Thutmose III had her public monuments destroyed, he disposed of the wreckage near her temple at Deir el- Bahri. Excavations in the 19th century CE brought these broken monuments and statues to light but, at that time, no one understood how to read hieroglyphics – numerous still believed them to be simple decorations – and so her name was lost to history.

The English polymath and scholar Thomas Young( 1773- 1829 CE), still, was argued that these ancient symbols represented words and that hieroglyphics were nearly related to demotic and latterly Coptic scripts. His work was erected upon by his occasionally- colleague- occasionally- rival, the French philologist and scholar Jean- Francois Champollion( 1790- 1832 CE). In 1824 CE Champollion published his translation of the Rosetta Stone, proving that the symbols were a written language and this opened up ancient Egypt to a contemporary world.
Champollion, visiting Hatshepsut’s temple, was mystified by the egregious references to a female pharaoh during the New Kingdom of Egypt who was unknown in history. His compliances were the first in the contemporary age to inspire an interest in the queen who, moment, is regarded as one of the topmost rulers of the ancient world.

How and when Hatshepsut died was unknown until relatively lately. She wasn’t buried in her mortuary temple but in a tomb in the near Valley of the Kings( KV60). Egyptologist Zahi Hawass located her mummy in the Cairo museum’s effects in 2006 CE and proved her identity by matching a loose tooth from a box of hers to the mummy. An examination of that corpus shows that she died in her fifties from an abscess following this tooth’s birth.

Egyptologist Zahi Hawass analyzes Queen Hatshepsut Mummy
Egyptologist Zahi Hawass analyzes Queen Hatshepsut Mummy


Although Egyptian monarchs didn’t know her name, her mortuary temple and other monuments saved her legacy. Her temple at Deir el- Bahri was considered so magnific that later kings had their own built in the same vicinity and, as noted, was so impressed with this temple and her other workshop that they claimed them as their own.

There is, in fact, no other Egyptian monarch except Ramesses II( 1279- 1213 BCE) who erected as numerous impressive monuments as Hatshepsut. Although unknown for the utmost of history, in the once 100 times her accomplishments have achieved global recognition. In the present day, she’s a commanding presence in Egyptian – and world – history and stands as the very part model for women that Thutmose III may have tried so hard to abolish from time and memory.

girl waking Hatshepsut temple
Beautiful caucasian woman enjoying a tour to the Hatshepsut Temple in Egypt.

What to do in Luxor Egypt – Luxor Tours and Excursions

Explore Luxor Tours’ uncountable adventures, start with the East bank tour visiting Karnak Temple, and Luxor Temple, also enjoy the West bank tour visiting Valley Of The Kings, Hatshepsut Temple, the Colossi of Memnon, enjoy a hot air balloon ride in the morning. Take in Nile Cruise from Luxor to Aswan visiting Kom Ombo, Edfu, and Esna while enjoying the beautiful view of the Nile along the way, or spend a day in Cairo visiting The Pyramids of Cheops, Chefren, Mykreinus, the Sphinx, the Egyptian museum, Old Cairo also go shopping in Khan El Khalili, or a trip to Aswan visiting Philae Temple, Unfinished Obelisk, the High Dam and Abu Simple Temples.

All these tours are assured to add something memorable to your tours in Luxor with EZ Tour Egypt.

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FAQ

The entire country of Egypt deserves to be seen with its every divine detail but there are places that must be seen similar as the exciting Hurghada’s red ocean, The prodigies of Cairo the pyramids of Giza, the great sphinx, the Egyptian Museum, Khan El Khalili, the sensations of Luxor like Valley of the Kings, Karnak and Hatshepsut temple and the marvels of Aswan like Abu Simbel temples, Philea temple, Unfinished obelisk and The phenomena of Alexandria like Qaitbat Citadel, Pompey’s Pillar and Alexandria Library.

 
 

The entire country of Egypt deserves to be explored in its stunning detail, but there are places that must be seen above all else such as the breathtaking Red Sea of ​​Hurghada, the wonders of Cairo, the pyramids Giza, the Great Sphinx, the Egyptian Museum, the Khan El Khalili Market, the wonders of Luxor such as the Valley of the Kings, the temples of Karnak and Hatshepsut, and the wonders of Aswan such as the temple of Abu Simbel, the temple of Phileus, the Obelisk unfinished and wonders of Alexandria such as the Citadel of Qaitbat, the Pillar of Pompey, and the Library of Alexandria. Learn about the best places to visit in Egypt.

If you want to apply for a 30-day visa on arrival, you must be one of the eligible countries, hold a valid passport with at least 6 months remaining, and pay $25 USD in cash, for a 30-day visa you Must Have a passport valid for at least 8 months, complete the online application, pay the visa fee and then print the visa to present later to the border guard at the airport. You may also be one of the lucky ones to get a free 90-day visa. Learn more about Egypt’s travel visa.
 

The best time to travel to Egypt is during the winter from September to April as the climate becomes a little tropical accompanied by a magical atmosphere of warm weather with a winter breeze. You will be notified in the week of your trip if the Climate is unsafe and if any changes have been made.

Egypt is a big country with a rich civilization and always welcomes travelers from all over the globe at any time. Egypt is now one of the best tourist countries to have a great vacation, check Egypt’s last updates regarding the tourism sector and you will find great efforts in the last few years.

Our price cost for a vacation in Egypt starts from 350 USD  which is the lowest price you will find in the market.

 

 

 
 

Our Egypt packages vacation ideas include tours to Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, and Alexandria. We offer 5 days Cairo and Luxor tour package, 6 days Cairo and Nile cruise tour, 6 days Cairo, Luxor, and Aswan package, and many more.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keeping in mind that Egypt is a conservative society, dress moderately as you wich, but of course, light cotton clothes are preferred during the summer, and a cover for your head like a hat or scarf to protect you from the sun, a jacket for the winter nights will come in handy, and something comfortable for your feet like sneakers or a flip flop.

In a restaurant, it is good to give between 5 and 10% tips to the waiter. For a small favor, like carrying luggage or parking a car, a few Egyptian pounds would be appropriate. No less than five. Often times in Egypt you will find someone tending to the bathroom to keep it clean. Giving them a few Egyptian pounds is an appropriate amount. Tipping your tour guide and vehicle driver is completely optional but should be considered if you’re provided with great service. If you decide to tip feel free to give what you think your experience was worth.

There are many touristic areas in Egypt where special concerns are not necessary; however, in less touristic places, relatively modest dress is recommended. Women should avoid very tight clothing, dressing with relative modesty is a way of respecting the local culture.

Egypt has a variety of delicious cuisines but we recommend “Ful & Ta’meya (Fava Beans and Falafel)”, Mulukhiya, “Koshary”, a traditional Egyptian pasta dish, and Kebab & Kofta, the Egyptian traditional meat dish, read more about The Best Traditional Egyptian Food

There are a lot of public holidays in Egypt too many to count either religious or nation, the most important festivals are the holy month of Ramadan which ends with Eid Al Fitr, Christmas, new years eve, and Easter.

 

There are many reasons to book your trip through EZ TOUR EGYPT. We are unique in the fact that we will customize your holiday to meet your needs. Having vast experience of the various Nile cruises available, single, couples and groups catered for, all tailored to suit your needs in Luxor, Aswan, Cairo, and the Red Sea Riviera. Each member of our team is experienced, qualified and knowledgeable in their field, providing you with accurate information on Egypt’s magnificent history and achievements that have captured the imagination of the world ever since.

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